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What losses occur during operation of the transformer? How to reduce losses?

Transformers incur different types of losses during operation, primarily comprising two kinds: copper losses and iron losses.

Copper Losses: Copper losses result from the resistance in the windings through which current flows, usually made of copper wire. These losses mainly occur in the winding's conductors due to the generation of heat as electric current passes through. Copper losses are directly proportional to the square of the current.

To reduce copper losses:

  • Use thicker conductors or materials with higher electrical conductivity to minimize resistance .

  • Reduce the load current of the transformer to decrease copper losses.

  • Enhance the transformer's operational efficiency to minimize unnecessary losses.

Iron Losses: Iron losses arise from hysteresis and eddy current effects in the transformer's iron core, which are associated with the varying magnetic field.

Iron losses encompass:

  • Hysteresis Loss: Iron core magnetization and demagnetization under AC current result in energy loss. To mitigate hysteresis loss, one can choose iron core materials with smaller hysteresis characteristics.

  • Eddy Current Loss: The AC electromagnetic field induces eddy currents within the iron core, leading to energy loss. To diminish eddy current losses, one can employ thinner laminated iron core sheets or adopt iron core designs to minimize eddy current loss.

To reduce transformer losses, one can take the following measures:

  • Select high-efficiency transformers: The latest-generation high-efficiency transformer designs use materials and technologies to minimize losses.

  • Optimize transformer design: Choose suitable core materials, winding designs, and cooling systems to minimize losses.

  • Regular maintenance: Periodic maintenance ensures the transformer's proper operation, including cleaning windings, inspecting cooling systems, and maintaining oil insulation.

  • Avoid overloading: Overloading can lead to increased copper losses, so it should be avoided.

  • Choose the appropriate transformer capacity: Ensure that the transformer's capacity matches the load to avoid unnecessary losses.

Reducing transformer losses not only improves efficiency but also extends its lifespan, reducing operational costs. Therefore, in the selection, design, and operation of transformers, measures to minimize losses should be thoroughly considered.

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